Nella lingua italiana, col termine “trauma” ci si riferisce al concetto di ferita, di lesione fisica, oppure ad un evento violento negativo, violento e circoscritto che incide profondamente sulla persona.
In psicologia1 è ormai universalmente riconosciuto l’impatto traumatico di alcune esperienze estreme, come ad esempio il maltrattamento fisico, la violenza sessuale e l’abbandono.
Tuttavia non tutti i soggetti esposti ad eventi simili manifestano le stesse conseguenze. Ciò è dovuto all’interazione tra fattori biologici, psicologici e sociali che concorrono in questo processo.
In altre parole, è possibile affermare che le conseguenze di un evento traumatico sull’individuo sono determinate da diversi e numerosi fattori: la tipologia dell’evento, l’età del soggetto, le caratteristiche della sua personalità, la qualità delle relazioni, la possibilità di dare significato all’esperienza attraverso la condivisione, l’opportunità di costruire con altre persone progetti di riscatto e riparativi.
Numerosi studi2 hanno evidenziato come effetti traumatici siano presenti anche in soggetti che hanno vissuto e sono cresciuti in contesti relazionali gravemente distorti, inappropriati e non rispondenti ai bisogni affettivi fondamentali.
Questa nuova linea di pensiero sostiene, inoltre, che un evento traumatico colpisce con maggiore facilità individui già vittime di contesti sociali inadeguati. Alcune esempi di questi ultimi sono relazioni caratterizzate da trascuratezza, relazioni perverse e violente, patologie psichiche dei genitori, gravi conflittualità relazionali. In questi casi, viene soprattutto a mancare il rapporto protettivo tra genitore e figlio e la capacità genitoriale di rispondere ai bisogni di cura.
Dal punto di vista psicofisiologico il soggetto in età infantile non dispone di una maturazione cerebrale sufficiente per attribuire significato e continuità all’esperienza. Questo compito spetta alla figura genitoriale.
In età adolescenziale questo processo ha già compiuto numerosi passi avanti. Tuttavia incontra un periodo di profondo cambiamento e formazione identitaria che non assicura ancora il soggetto dal rischio di sviluppare conseguenze negative.
Alcuni degli effetti del trauma riscontrati in età adolescenziale hanno un impatto significativo sul processo evolutivo dell’individuo.
Ecco 5 conseguenze1 che esperienze traumatiche possono avere sul mondo interno degli adolescenti.
Dal punto di vista psichico, l’evento traumatico può causare uno choc violento, al parI di una lacerazione fisica. Infatti, il trauma può provocare un forte aumento di eccitazione per cui il soggetto non possiede mezzi sufficienti per elaborarlo. In questo modo egli viene travolto dagli eventi, e insieme a lui anche le difese che erano state costruite fino ad allora con lo scopo di proteggerlo.
Un sentimento molto comune suscitato da un’esperienza traumatica è l’impotenza. Ciò è dovuto al fatto che molto spesso l’individuo si trova impreparato ad affrontarla.
Questa sensazione può essere collegata alla mancanza di protezione da parte dei genitori.
INCAPACITA’ DI ELABORAZIONE
Un’altra comune effetto dell’evento traumatico è lo sconvolgimento delle normali capacità di pensiero. In un primo momento, infatti, l’esperienza traumatica non viene elaborata poiché l’individuo non riesce ad attribuirgli un senso, dal momento che non rientra negli schemi di pensiero da lui posseduti e cui normalmente fa riferimento.
E’ per questo motivo che spesso le violenze non vengono comunicate ad altri, ovvero per una mancanza di comprensione degli eventi. Questi soggetti non possiedono gli strumenti adeguati per un’elaborazione di questo tipo, per cui necessitano dell’adulto e del suo supporto per guardare all’esperienza e per far emergere poco alla volta fatti tanto dolorosi.
MECCANISMI DI DIFESA
Il primo e più comune comportamento di fronte a un’esperienza traumatica è quello di allontanarla da sé, di confinarla in una parte di sé in modo che non provochi dolore. In altra parole, è possibile tentare di negare l’evento o scindere la parte razionale da quella emotiva.
Questo tipo di eventi genere una profonda angoscia, terrore, dolore e spesso anche vergogna. Gli adolescenti possono tentare di negare l’accaduto o prenderne le distanze, mettendo in atto un vero e proprio scollamento tra pensiero ed emozioni. L’unico scopo è quello di proteggersi da qualcosa percepito come troppo grande e ingestibile.
I tentativi di mettere in atto meccanismi di difesa simili sono destinati a fallire.
L’evento traumatico ha già lasciato la sua impronta indelebile e aperto una ferita. Una ferita che condiziona la vita dell’individuo e lo spingerà a ripetere inconsapevolmente una serie di comportamenti percepiti come compensatori o protettivi del dolore provato. Essi sono causati da uno stato perenne di ansia e agitazione, talvolta abbinati a depressione.
Tipiche risposte adolescenziali ad esperienze traumatiche si manifestano attraverso comportamenti quali scoppi di rabbia, atteggiamenti aggressivi, chiusure relazionali, disturbi del sonno, incubi ricorrenti, problemi nell’alimentazione e nell’apprendimento, fughe da casa.
Questi sono i comportamenti più comunemente esperiti dagli adolescenti che hanno vissuto un’esperienza traumatica. Possono risultare significativi in quanto insorgono improvvisamente, senza che il soggetto abbia mai parlato prima del disagio. Possono essere dunque d’aiuto identificarli preventivamente, in modo da riuscire a supportare l’adolescente e stimare processi di riflessione su di sé.
1 Bertetti B., Chistolini M., Rangone G., Vadilonga F., (2003) “L’adolescenza ferita. Un modello di presa in carico delle gravi crisi adolescenziali”. Ed. Franco Angeli.
2 Kernberg O., (1993) “Aggressività., disturbi della personalità e perversione.” Ed. Cortina, Milano.
Invia un commento
TUTTI GLI ARTICOLI DEL MIO BLOG
Iscriviti alla Newsletter
Ricevo a Monza (zona San Fruttuoso), Lissone centro e a Vimercate.
Per informazioni e/o appuntamento, chiamami al numero +39.322.214.171.1242, mandami una mail all'indirizzo firstname.lastname@example.org oppure compila il form accanto.
I like this weblog very much so much fantastic info .
I like what you guys are up too. This kind of clever work and exposure! Keep up the terrific works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my own blogroll.
I redally like iit whennever people comke tkgether and shade views.
Grerat website, keeep iit up!
This is the precise blog for anybody who needs to seek out out about this topic. You realize so much its nearly exhausting to argue with you (not that I truly would want…HaHa). You undoubtedly put a new spin on a topic thats been written about for years. Nice stuff, just great!
Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch as I found it for him smile Therefore let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! “Curiosity will conquer fear even more than bravery will.” by James Stephens.
M F Group Findings Inhibition ratio C No PSP No Indicator Values C PSP1 PSP2 Hepatic Carcinoma 10 282 AFB1 65 PSP AFB1 60 MST d AWG g WBC 10 3 mm 3 384 is doxycycline Since a secondary contralateral breast tumor cannot be inferred from the molecular make up of the primary tumor, while the other type of events can be inferred in relation to tamoxifen resistance of the primary tumor, this was not considered an event and these patients were censored at the date of this occurrence
I am curious to find out what blog system you are using? I’m having some small security issues with my latest website and I would like to find something more secure. Do you have any suggestions?
Lovely blog! I am loving it!! Will be back later to read some more. I am bookmarking your feeds also.
Exceptional post but I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this subject? I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit more. Thanks!
We’re a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your website provided us with valuable info to work on. You’ve done an impressive job and our whole community will be grateful to you.
Hi, Neat post. There is an issue together with your site in web explorer, might check this… IE still is the market chief and a large portion of other folks will omit your fantastic writing because of this problem.
Just wanna admit that this is invaluable, Thanks for taking your time to write this.
Thanks for every other informative web site. The place else may I am getting that kind of info written in such an ideal approach? I have a venture that I am simply now operating on, and I have been at the glance out for such information.
I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz reply as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from. thank you
I want to express my thanks to the writer for bailing me out of such a setting. As a result of surfing around through the internet and coming across proposals that were not powerful, I was thinking my life was well over. Existing minus the solutions to the issues you have resolved all through your main review is a serious case, as well as the ones which could have badly damaged my career if I hadn’t noticed your website. Your own natural talent and kindness in handling almost everything was useful. I’m not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come across such a solution like this. I am able to at this time relish my future. Thanks very much for this expert and results-oriented help. I won’t hesitate to endorse the sites to anybody who should receive guide about this subject.
naturally like your web site but you need to check the spelling on several of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very bothersome to tell the reality nevertheless I?¦ll certainly come again again.
I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your website. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme? Superb work!
Excellent blog here! Also your website loads up very fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my website loaded up as fast as yours lol
so much good information on here, : D.
I just could not depart your web site prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the standard information a person provide for your visitors? Is gonna be back often to check up on new posts
Hey I am so excited I found your webpage, I really found you by mistake, while I was researching on Bing for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thanks for a remarkable post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to look over it all at the moment but I have saved it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the great work.
I got good info from your blog
Generally I don’t read post on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do it! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thanks, very nice post.
Keep working ,impressive job!
[url=”https://brainycoursework.com”]coursework help uk[/url]
coursework help university
jd coursework coursework cambridge coursework for high school coursework english literature
Thank you for any other informative blog. The place else may I get that kind of info written in such a perfect way? I’ve a project that I am simply now running on, and I have been at the look out for such info.
Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I’ve truly enjoyed browsing your weblog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing in your feed and I am hoping you write again very soon!
Very interesting topic, appreciate it for putting up.
anastrozole us buy generic anastrozole 1 mg arimidex 1 mg for sale
Would love to constantly get updated outstanding blog! .
online dating sites for free free and best plenty of fish sign in topchatsites
naproxen 250mg without prescription naproxen 250mg uk lansoprazole 30mg sale
generic clarithromycin 250mg buy generic biaxin 500mg buy meclizine 25mg without prescription
albuterol 100mcg uk buy albuterol generic generic ciprofloxacin 1000mg
spiriva medication hytrin ca hytrin 5mg tablet
purchase singulair generic viagra 50mg oral sildenafil 50mg pills
buy actos pill purchase viagra online cheap viagra mail order usa
tadalafil 20mg cost order cialis 10mg online buy cialis canada
Some genuinely nice stuff on this web site, I love it.
tadalafil 10mg sale Cialis women casino slots
Hello my loved one! I wish to say that this article is awesome, nice written and include almost all vital infos. I¦d like to see extra posts like this .
Today, while I was at work, my cousin stole my apple ipad and tested to see if it can survive a twenty five foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now destroyed and she has 83 views. I know this is completely off topic but I had to share it with someone!
ivermectin 3mg for humans amantadine for sale avlosulfon cheap
play online blackjack real money roulette online with real money play online blackjack
nifedipine 30mg oral order fexofenadine pill order allegra 180mg generic
best no deposit free spins rivers casino online casino real money
Intorno al 680 nei campi di Keramisi, l’area dell’odierna città di Bitola, si insediò il gruppo di bulgari guidati da Khan Kuber che sono gli antenati del popolo che oggi vive in Macedonia. Qui si stabilirono come indipendenti e crearono la loro Bulgaria di Kuber e, come si legge nelle iscrizioni dei Cavalieri Madara, si mantennero in contatto con la Bulgaria di Asparuh e parteciparono ai suoi negoziati di politica estera.
ramipril sale generic glimepiride 1mg arcoxia online buy
best poker online real money recommended you read write papers for me
purchase doxycycline pill order ventolin for sale cleocin 300mg drug
buy assignments buying an essay sulfasalazine 500mg generic
order asacol without prescription asacol 400mg drug irbesartan 300mg sale
hello there and thank you for your information – I’ve definitely picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise some technical issues using this website, since I experienced to reload the web site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my email and could look out for much more of your respective interesting content. Make sure you update this again very soon..
order benicar 20mg pills order depakote 500mg online cheap purchase depakote online cheap
clobetasol brand cordarone 100mg brand purchase cordarone online cheap
best essay writing website online essay writers wanted good
essay writing services cheap essay writers
order diamox generic acetazolamide 250 mg canada order azathioprine generic
Hello There. I discovered your weblog the use of msn. This is a very smartly written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to learn extra of your helpful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.
lanoxin 250 mg without prescription purchase lanoxin online molnupiravir online buy
amoxil 1000mg tablet buy stromectol 3mg without prescription ivermectin 20 mg
buy carvedilol online cheap order elavil 10mg generic order amitriptyline 10mg without prescription
buy priligy 60mg buy domperidone sale order domperidone sale
I am perpetually thought about this, appreciate it for putting up.
buy alendronate sale motrin online order motrin 600mg us
generic indomethacin 75mg buy indocin for sale brand cenforce 100mg
I like this post, enjoyed this one appreciate it for posting. “The universe is not hostile, nor yet is it unfriendly. It is simply indifferent.” by John Andrew Holmes.
oral pamelor 25 mg buy generic paroxetine 20mg buy generic paxil 20mg
buy doxycycline order generic chloroquine medrol order
pepcid 20mg sale buy mirtazapine generic mirtazapine 15mg us
tadalafil buy online generic trimox 500mg amoxicillin for sale online
requip usa buy calcitriol 0.25mg generic buy labetalol 100mg generic
order esomeprazole 40mg capsules biaxin canada furosemide drug
buy fenofibrate 160mg pill buy sildenafil 100mg online cheap cheapest viagra
discount prescription drug
You got a very great website, Gladiola I found it through yahoo.
minocycline cost purchase gabapentin sale order terazosin 1mg pills
order cialis 20mg online cheap viagra fast shipping order sildenafil 100mg
tadalafil 40mg pill Cialis buy overnight buying ed pills online
Hi there! I’m at work surfing around your blog from my new iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up the excellent work!
I really appreciate this post. I’ve been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thank you again
buy clomid 100mg without prescription prednisolone 10mg over the counter brand prednisolone 40mg
oral modafinil stromectol 12mg ca buy phenergan without prescription
buy isotretinoin 10mg generic order generic isotretinoin order ampicillin
deltasone 5mg tablet buy deltasone without prescription oral amoxicillin 250mg
As I website owner I believe the subject material here is rattling excellent, thanks for your efforts.
Wonderful blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Thank you
You actually make it appear so easy together with your presentation but I in finding this matter to be actually something which I believe I’d by no means understand. It sort of feels too complicated and extremely vast for me. I am looking ahead on your next put up, I will try to get the hold of it!
Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks
The next time I read a blog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. I mean, I know it was my choice to read, but I actually thought youd have something interesting to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you could fix if you werent too busy looking for attention.
stromectol price top erection pills order prednisone for sale
Heya i’m for the first time here. I found this board and I in finding It really helpful & it helped me out a lot. I am hoping to provide one thing again and help others like you helped me.
I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz reply as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. appreciate it
order sildenafil pregabalin order order generic proscar 1mg
I see something genuinely special in this web site.
Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!
Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this blog. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s challenging to get that “perfect balance” between usability and appearance. I must say that you’ve done a great job with this. Also, the blog loads super fast for me on Opera. Outstanding Blog!
I genuinely enjoy reading on this internet site, it has wonderful posts. “Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind.” by Rudyard Kipling.
You could certainly see your enthusiasm in the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers like you who are not afraid to say how they believe. Always go after your heart.
Very well written information. It will be beneficial to anybody who usess it, as well as me. Keep doing what you are doing – can’r wait to read more posts.
Wonderful site. Plenty of useful information here. I’m sending it to a few friends ans also sharing in delicious. And of course, thank you for your effort!
You can definitely see your expertise within the paintings you write. The world hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to say how they believe. Always follow your heart.
I’ve recently started a site, the information you offer on this website has helped me greatly. Thanks for all of your time & work.
You have noted very interesting points! ps nice internet site.
It?¦s actually a great and useful piece of information. I?¦m glad that you just shared this helpful information with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.
It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d without a doubt donate to this excellent blog! I suppose for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will talk about this website with my Facebook group. Talk soon!
Hello my friend! I wish to say that this post is amazing, great written and include almost all important infos. I?¦d like to peer extra posts like this .
I beloved up to you will obtain carried out right here. The comic strip is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish. however, you command get got an edginess over that you would like be handing over the following. in poor health surely come further earlier once more since exactly the similar nearly a lot frequently within case you protect this hike.
Hello, i believe that i saw you visited my website thus i got here to “return the prefer”.I am trying to in finding issues to enhance my web site!I assume its ok to use a few of your ideas!!
I was just searching for this information for some time. After six hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your site. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that don’t rank this type of informative websites in top of the list. Normally the top websites are full of garbage.
WONDERFUL Post.thanks for share..more wait .. …
My brother recommended I may like this blog. He was entirely right. This publish truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how a lot time I had spent for this info! Thanks!
As a Newbie, I am permanently exploring online for articles that can aid me. Thank you
absorica online order buy azithromycin 250mg pills zithromax price
Wow, fantastic blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your site is wonderful, as well as the content!
Wow! Thank you! I always wanted to write on my blog something like that. Can I include a portion of your post to my website?
ondansetron 4mg tablet amoxicillin order sulfamethoxazole usa
buy albuterol generic buy augmentin 625mg online cheap order augmentin 625mg generic
buy prednisolone pill order lasix 40mg generic buy lasix 100mg online cheap